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AUREOBASIDIUM Mold Specie Picture
is a known Type I and Type III allergen that
can sometimes cause
infections in the human skin, nails, and eyes. The U.S.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA]
lists both Aureobasidium and Aureobasidium pullulans as an
allergen and irritant, and as a cause of
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and Dermatitis.
showing chains of 1- to 2-celled, darkly pigmented arthroconidia
representing the Scytalidium anamorph of Aureobasidium
and the presence of numerous hyaline, single-celled, ovoid-shaped
conidia (ameroconidia) which are produced on short denticles.
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Colonies are fast growing, smooth,
covered with slimy masses of conidia, cream or pink to brown or black.
Hyphae are hyaline and septate, frequently becoming dark-brown with age
and undergoing holothallic transformation to form chains of 1- to
2-celled, thick-walled, darkly pigmented arthroconidia commonly called
chlamydoconidia. These arthroconidia actually represent the
Scytalidium anamorph of Aureobasidium and are only of
secondary importance in recognizing members of this genus. Conidia are
produced synchronously in dense groups from indistinct scars or from
short denticles on undifferentiated, hyaline to sub-hyaline hyphae.
Conidia are hyaline, smooth-walled, single-celled (ameroconidia),
ellipsoidal but of variable shape and size (8-12 x 4-6 um), often with
an indistinct hilum (a mark or scar at the point of attachment).
Temperature range for growth 2-35C; optimum 25C; maximum 35C (higher in
some human pathogenic isolates).
This species has two varieties: A.
pullulans var. pullulans, with a colony which remains pink,
light brown, or yellow for at least three weeks, and A. pullulans
var. melanogenum which soon becomes black or greenish-black due
to dark hyphae which often fall apart into separate cells.
Descriptions and Habitats
is a cosmopolitan, dematiaceous fungus commonly isolated from plant debris,
soil, wood, textiles, and indoor air environment. This yeast-like fungus is commonly found on
caulk or damp window frames in bathrooms. Aureobasidium (Pullularia)
may be pink or black in color. Although it seldom causes infections, it can
be allergenic. This is one type of mold that is a type of mildew. It will
grow in cooler climates and along with
is commonly found growing on siding.
occurs indoors in areas of free water, such as condensate pans, or as a
primary colonist of broadloom following a flood. Because its growth form is
yeast-like (and are not forcibly discharged), its cells/spores only become
airborne through mechanical disruption of contaminated materials or
aspiration of contaminated water.
Aureobasidium pullulans is not a primary human pathogen nor is it recognized
as a producer of significant
High airborne levels of this fungus have been associated with allergic
complaints probably due to respiratory irritation mediated by cell-wall
components (e.g. beta glucans, glycoproteins), it has also been known as an
irritant, and to cause pulmonary problems (small airway).
According to the mycological information provided in the website,
www.doctorfungus.org, the genus
Aureobasidium includes 14 species and one variety. Among these,
Aureobasidium pullulans is the only well-known species.
the research conducted by
Mycology Online, it is reported that Aureobasidium pullulans has
a world-wide distribution and it is usually isolated as a saprophyte,
occasionally from skin and nails. However, it has also been reported as a
rare causative agent of phaeohyphomycosis, mycotic keratitis and peritonitis
in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).
Aureobasidium is a known Type I
and Type III allergen that can sometimes cause infections in the human
skin, nails, and eyes. The U.S. Government's O.S.H.A. Agency lists both
Aureobasidium and Aureobasidium pullulans as an allergen and irritant, and
as a cause of Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and Dermatitis.
Aureobasidium pullulans growing in a mold culture
plate [photo taken at 7 days of mold growth]. From Identifying Filamentous Fungi,
Guy St.-Germain & Richard Summerbell.
It grows moderately rapidly and
matures within 7 days of incubation. The colony diameter is 1 to 3 cm
following incubation at 25°C for 7 days on potato glucose agar. The
colonies are flat, smooth, moist, yeast-like, mucoid to pasty, shiny and
leathery in appearance. The surface is white, pale pink or yellow at the
beginning and becomes brown to black and velvety with a grayish fringe by
aging. Reverse is pale or black.
When the colony is young, moist, and yeast-like, unicellular
budding yeast cells (blastoconidia) are the only structures observed
microscopically. By aging, while the colony gets black and velvety, hyphae
Blastoconidia are pale in color. The synchronous development
of blastoconidia in tufts is typical. Hyphae are septate. They appear
hyaline at the beginning and get dark brown by aging. The width of the
hyphae is generally 2-10 µm but may be as thick as 15-20 µm.
Aureobasidium has no distinct conidiophores. Conidiogenous cells, which
are not much differentiated, are either intercalary or located terminally in
the hyphae. The conidia (4-6 x 2-3 µm in size) are one-celled, hyaline and
oval to cylindrical in shape. They form clusters or are located along the
hyphae. These conidia continue to multiply by budding and form secondary
As well as blastoconidia, chlamydoconidia and arthroconidia
may also be observed. The hyphae of some strains differentiate to form
thick-walled, large (up to 12x6 µm in size), phaeoid (brown in color)
chlamydoconidia. Thick-walled, one- to two-celled, phaeoid arthroconidia are
produced in old, mature cultures.
No special precautions other than
general laboratory precautions are required.
susceptibility data are available for Aureobasidium. In vitro
susceptibility testing methods are not yet standardized for dematiceaous
The mycological information gathered and organized in
this extensive research on different Pathogenic Molds was sourced
out from the list of informative websites below:
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