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Madurella Mold Species

Madurella species are causative agents of Mycetoma.

(Information from www.doctorfungus.org @ 2005)
 

 

Taxonomic Classifications

 

Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Ascomycota

Class: Euascomycetes

Order: Dothideales

Family: Lophiostomataceae

Genus: Madurella

 

 

Madurella Mold Pictures

 

Madurella microscopic morphology

(Image Courtesy of www.doctorfungus.org @ 2005)

 

Take note of the microscopic morphology of Madurella mycetomatis showing phialides.  The optimum temperature for growth of this mold is 37C.


 

Madurella colony morphology

(Image Courtesy of www.doctorfungus.org @ 2005)

 

Culture of Madurella mycetomatis showing the typical brown diffusible pigment in the agar.

 

 

Infection due to Madurella

(Image Courtesy of www.doctorfungus.org @ 2005)

 

Mycetoma with multiple draining sinuses, swollen tissue, and sclerotia are present due to Madurella mycetomatis.
 

 

Ecology

Madurella is a dematiaceous, filamentous fungus found in soil with distribution restricted to certain tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, India, and South America.  Madurella is pathogenic for humans and causes infections.

 

Species

The genus Madurella contains two species namely, Madurella mycetomatis and Madurella grisea.

 

Pathogenicity and Health Effects

Madurella species are among the fungi responsible for mycetoma infection in humans.  Strains belonging to this genus are isolated particularly from cases with black grain eumycetoma.  The fungus spores enter the body via trauma and the development of the mycetoma infection is very slow which may take several years.  The infection involves the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues, the fascia, and the bones and the infection remains localized only.  Other effects include tumefaction and draining sinuses

 

Macroscopic Appearance

     Growth rate is slow and colonies are raised to heaped and at times radially folded with glabrous to wooly texture;

     The surface colony color is from white to yellow brown to dark gray or olive brown while  the reverse is dark brown in color and sometimes with the production of a brown diffusible pigment; and

     Exposure at 37C leads to an optimum growth of Madurella mycetomatis while Madurella grisea grows poorly or does not grow at all at this temperature. 

 

Microscopic Appearance

      Septate, sterile hyphae, chlamydospores, and sclerotia (large and black hyphal masses) are present;

      Phialides with vase shaped collarettes are occasionally produced by Madurella mycetomatis on weak media which bear round or oval conidia at their tips; and

      Madurella strains are dematiaceous and sterile under laboratory conditions.

 

Laboratory Precautions

General laboratory precautions are required, no special safety measures needed.

 

Susceptibility
Few data are available.  Ketoconazole and itraconazole MICs appeared to be lower than those of econazole and miconazole in a previous in vitro assay.  In a more recent study, voriconazole MICs were found to be noticeably low, while those of itraconazole were variable. 

A combination of antifungal and surgical therapy is usually ideal for treatment of mycetoma infections.  Ketoconazole gives favorable response rates when used for prolonged period of time of as long as 8 to 24 months while griseofulvin may be used in patients who do not have any reactions to ketoconazole. 
 

The mycological information gathered
and organized in this extensive research on
different
Pathogenic Molds was sourced out
from the list of informative websites and
reference book below:
http://www.osha.gov
http://www.doctorfungus.org
http://www.mycology.adelaide.edu.au
http://www.mycology.adelaide.edu.au

http://www.dehs.umn.edu
http://www.mold-help.org
http://www.mycology.net
http://www.clinical-mycology.com
http://www.botany.utoronto.ca
http://www.med.sc.edu
http://www.tigr.org
http://www.pangloss.ucsfmedicalcenter.org
http://www.dermnz.org
http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
http://www.wadsworth.org
http://botit.botany.wisc.edu

 A Clinical Laboratory Handbook:
Identifying Filamentous Fungi by
St. Germain, Guy and R. Summerbell.

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