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VERTICILLIUM Mold Species

The U.S. Government's Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA] classifies Verticillium as an allergen and irritant and as a cause of Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and Dermatitis.

Taxonomic classification

The classification of various Verticillium species, such as Verticillium depauperatum, Verticillium rubrum and Verticillium serrae in the genus Verticillium remains doubtful and uncertain. Some authorities feel that they should be included in other genera.


 

Characterized by whorls of phialides produced along the length of undifferentiated filaments of on conidiophores. The colourless to brightly coloured 1- or 2-celled spores (conidia) collect in small wet masses. Common in soil and decaying plant matter; also causing plant disease.

Holomorphs: Cordyceps, Nectria, Torrubiella. Ref: Gams 1971.

Description and Habitat

Verticillium is a widely distributed filamentous fungus that inhabits decaying vegetation and soil. Some Verticillium species may be pathogenic to arthropods, plants, and other fungi. It is commonly considered as a contaminant. Verticillium may very rarely cause human disease.

Species

Based on the informative website, www.doctorfungus.com , the  genus Verticillium has four known species; Verticillium affinae,Verticillium albo-atrum, Verticillium fusisporum, and Verticillium luteoalbum.

Health Effects

Members of this genus are often isolated from the environment. It has been reported as a rare agent of mycotic keratitis.

Mycosis: Hyalohyphomycosis

 
A mycotic infection of man or animals caused by a number of hyaline (non-dematiaceous) hyphomycetes where the tissue morphology of the causative organism is mycelial. This separates it from phaeohyphomycosis where the causative agents are brown-pigmented fungi. Hyalohyphomycosis is a general term used to group together infections caused by unusual hyaline fungal pathogens that are not agents of otherwise-named infections; such as Aspergillosis. Etiological agents include species of Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Acremonium, Beauveria, Fusarium, and Scopulariopsis.
 
Clinical manifestations

The clinical manifestations of hyalohyphomycosis are many ranging from harmless saprophytic colonization to acute invasive disease. Ideally, individual disease states involving invasive fungal infection by a hyaline hyphomycete should be designated by specific description of the pathology and the causative fungal genus or species (where known); for example "pathology A" caused by "fungus X".

Predisposing factors include prolonged neutropenia, especially in leukemia patients or in bone marrow transplant recipients, corticosteroid therapy, cytotoxic chemotherapy and to a lesser extent patients with AIDS. The typical patient is granulocytopenic and receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics for unexplained fever.

Macroscopic Features

Colonies of Verticillium grow moderately rapidly or rapidly. At 25C and on potato dextrose agar, the colonies are velvety to wooly. From the front, the color is white initially and becomes yellowish, red, pinkish-brown, or green. From the reverse, it is white or brown (rust color).

Microscopic Features

Septate hyaline hyphae, conidiophores, phialides, and conidia are observed. Conidiophores are hyaline, simple or branched. The branching of the conidiophores occurs in whorls (=verticillate; resembling spokes in a wheel from a central axis) at several levels. Conidiophores bear the phialides. Phialides are very long and are also arranged in verticils (whorls) around the conidiophore. Verticils may be disrupted in slide culture. The apices of the phialides are pointed. Conidia (2-13m in length) are hyaline or brightly colored, one-celled, and oval to pyriform in shape. They are solitary or form clusters in sticky heads at the tips of the phialides.

Laboratory Precautions

No special precautions other than general laboratory precautions are required.

Susceptibility

Very few data are available. Per these data on very limited number of isolates, amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole appear active in vitro against Verticillium spp.
 

The mycological information gathered and organized in this extensive research on the different Pathogenic Molds was  sourced out from the list of websites below:

http://www.osha.gov | http://www.doctorfungus.org | http://www.mycology.adelaide.edu.au | http://www.mycology.net | http://www.dehs.umn.edu | http://www.mold-help.org | http://www.mycology.net | http://www.pfdb.net | http://www.clinical-mycology.com | http://www.botany.utoronto.ca | http://www.med.sc.edu | http://www.tigr.org | http://www.pangloss.ucsfmedicalcenter.org | http://www.dermnz.org | http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov | http://www.wadsworth.org | http://botit.botany.wisc.edu

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