Toxic Black Mold Inspection, Testing, Removal, & Prevention
in Midwestern and Eastern USA and Canada by Environmental Hygienists and Industrial Hygienists Phillip & Divine Fry

www.mold.ph


Email phil@moldinspector.com   ►Phone USA 1-810-639-0523 or 1-480-310-7970
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YEAST Species

The U.S. Government's Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA] lists yeast as an allergen and irritant and as a cause of Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and Dermatitis

Description and Natural Habitats

Yeast are unicellular fungi. The precise classification is a field that uses the characteristics of the cell, ascospore and colony. Physiological characteristics are also used to identify species. One of the more well known characteristics is the ability to ferment sugars for the production of ethanol. Budding yeasts are true fungi of the phylum Ascomycetes, class Hemiascomycetes. The true yeasts are separated into one main order Saccaharomycetales. 

Yeasts are characterized by a wide dispersion of natural habitats. Common on plant leaves and flowers, soil and salt water. Yeasts are also found on the skin surfaces and in the intestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals, where they may live symbiotically or as parasites. The common "yeast infection" is typically Candidiasis is caused by the yeast-like fungus Candida albicans.  In addition to being the causative agent in vaginal yeast infections Candida is also a cause of diaper rash and thrush of the mouth and throat.

Yeasts multiply as single cells that divide by budding (eg Saccharomyces) or direct division (fission, eg. Schizosaccharomyces), or they may grow as simple irregular filaments (mycelium). In sexual reproduction most yeasts form asci, which contain up to eight haploid ascospores. These ascospores may fuse with adjoining nuclei and multiply through vegetative division or, as with certain yeasts, fuse with other ascospores.

The awsome power of yeast genetics is partially due to the ability to quickly map a phenotype producing gene to a region of the S. cerevisiae genome. For the past two decades S. cerevisiae has been the model system for much of molecular genetic research because the basic cellular mechanics of replication, recombination, cell division and metabolism are generally conserved between yeast and larger eukaryotes, including mammals. For more information on yeasts, please visit  Stanford University Genomic Resources.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae


DY150 cells in stationary phase
[electron micrograph]


DY150 cells undergoing detergent mediated (Y-PER) lysis
[electron micrograph, 12,000X]

Saccharomyces cerevisiae images provided by Diane Nowicki and Ryan Liermann

The mycological information gathered and organized in this extensive research on the different Pathogenic Molds was  sourced out from the list of websites below:

http://www.osha.gov | http://www.doctorfungus.org | http://www.mycology.adelaide.edu.au | http://www.mycology.net | http://www.dehs.umn.edu | http://www.mold-help.org | http://www.mycology.net | http://www.pfdb.net | http://www.clinical-mycology.com | http://www.botany.utoronto.ca | http://www.med.sc.edu | http://www.tigr.org | http://www.pangloss.ucsfmedicalcenter.org | http://www.dermnz.org | http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov | http://www.wadsworth.org | http://botit.botany.wisc.edu

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